Gastritis is a serious inflammation of the gastric mucosa. In severe cases, the disease spreads to the deep layers of the gastric wall, leading to its erosive and ulcerative lesions. Gastritis refers to diseases that lead not only to a deterioration in the quality of human life, but also to the development of concomitant diseases associated with insufficient mechanical and chemical processing of food.
If the disease has not led to the development of an erosive-ulcerative process, then patients are prescribed conservative treatment methods, including the intake of antisecretory, enveloping, antacid drugs, H2 histamine blockers, proton pump inhibitors and herbal medicines.
One of the most important conditions for the successful treatment of acute and chronic gastritis is a diet that provides for the exclusion of certain foods from the diet, as well as separate recommendations for cooking.
Characteristics of gastritis
Even minimal inflammation with gastritis eventually leads to disruption of the functional activity of the organ. The danger of this pathological condition lies in the fact that with prolonged sluggish development, gastritis leads to erosive and ulcerative lesions of the walls of the stomach with an increased risk of malignant neoplasms. Among all parts of the human digestive system, the stomach is the most vulnerable link, which is due to constant contact with food and digestive juices, including hydrochloric acid.
Important! In the modern world, gastritis is one of the most pressing diseases. This pathology is widespread everywhere, but to a greater extent the incidence is recorded in the territory of economically developed countries.
In addition to subdividing the forms of the pathological process, gastritis is conventionally classified into the following types:
Based on the nature of violations of the acid-forming function, gastritis is isolated with increased, reduced and preserved acidity.
Inflammatory lesions of the stomach occur with the same frequency in children, adolescence, adulthood and old age. Both endogenous (internal) and exogenous (external) factors can affect the development of the inflammatory process.
The following factors can have a potential effect on the development of an acute or chronic inflammatory process in the stomach:
- regular exposure to stress and psycho-emotional overload on the human body;
- helminthic invasions;
- poor nutrition, regular consumption of alcoholic beverages and smoking;
- the aggressive effect of the Helicobacter pylori bacteria on the walls of the stomach;
- long-term use of certain groups of medicines, especially non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs;
- the presence of concomitant diseases of the digestive system.
In addition to exogenous factors, there is a list of internal causes that can provoke the development of acute and chronic gastritis. These reasons include:
- dyshormonal disorders;
- disruption of the immune complexes;
- gastroduodenal reflux;
- hereditary predisposition to the development of diseases of the digestive tract;
- disruption of the autonomic nervous system, resulting in increased production of hydrochloric acid.
Symptoms of the disease
Due to the long asymptomatic course, a person for many years may not be aware of the development of an inflammatory process in the stomach.
The clinical picture of inflammatory lesions of the gastric wall directly depends on the type of gastritis itself and the phase of its course. For the acute form of the inflammatory process, the following symptom complex is characteristic:
- pulling or pressing pain in the epigastric (epigastric region);
- sour belching;
- increased gas production in the intestines (flatulence);
- alternation of constipation and diarrhea.
Nutrition during an exacerbation of the disease
The stage of exacerbation of inflammatory changes in the stomach involves adherence to strict dietary recommendations. The key principle of such a diet is the use of foods that mildly affect the mucous membrane. It is necessary to observe not only food restrictions, but also the rules of cooking, their consumption temperature and consistency. Foods that are too cold or too hot contribute to increased production of hydrochloric acid, so all meals should be at body temperature. During the period of acute manifestations of the disease, patients are recommended to observe table 1A, which provides for a severe restriction of the diet.
A few days after the onset of acute symptoms, patients are transferred to table 1B. It is recommended to cook each dish boiled or steamed. If the food is baked in the oven, it is necessary to avoid the formation of a golden brown crust. The initial diet involves limiting table salt to 6 g per day. The amount of water consumed must be at least 2 liters. The general menu of a patient with acute manifestations of gastritis includes mashed soups, as well as cereal side dishes that have a slimy consistency. In order to reduce the amount of substances that stimulate the production of digestive juices in meat raw materials, it is recommended to cook it for a long time and serve it mashed. All fish dishes should be prepared with lean fish. Boil fruit and vegetable ingredients before use. Patients with intense manifestations of the disease are advised to consume stale wheat bread (1-2 days old), whole milk, cottage cheese, jelly, soft-boiled eggs, weak black tea and unsweetened cocoa.
When there is a relative abatement of acute manifestations of the disease, patients are supplemented with new ingredients in their diet. Dishes made from meat and fish ingredients can be served in lumpy form, it is permissible to use cereals in a crumbly consistency. Most often, the acute form of the inflammatory process is characteristic of the hyperacid type of the disease (this type of gastritis is accompanied by an increased release of hydrochloric acid). In very rare cases, this condition develops with a hypoacid type of pathology (this is gastritis, which is accompanied by a low secretion of gastric juice). During the rehabilitation period, such patients are prescribed food products that stimulate the production of digestive juice (table number 2).
During the period of exacerbation of the pathological process, it is recommended to eat measuredly, in limited portions, several a day. As the acute manifestations of the disease subside, the diet is supplemented with dishes from animal products, boiled eggs, vegetable and mashed potatoes. The daily diet of acutely ill patients may include the following foods:
- natural jelly;
- cereals (preferably rice, semolina and buckwheat);
- yesterday's baked goods;
- beef, turkey and chicken meat;
- fish species such as pike perch and carp;
- steam egg dishes;
- weak black tea with whole milk;
Partial or complete restrictions include: raw root vegetables, sour cream, cottage cheese, various cheeses, sauces, spices, canned meat and fish, legumes, corn and wheat porridge, rye bread, mustard, kvass, coffee, drinks with carbon dioxide.
It is highly not recommended to use onions, white cabbage, radish fruits, turnips, cucumbers, sorrel, spinach without preliminary heat treatment.
It is forbidden to use canned vegetables, mushrooms, fried and hard-boiled eggs, snacks, confectionery, alcoholic beverages.
Menu for acute gastritis
The menu for patients with acute manifestations of gastritis is prescribed for an average of 10 days.
On the first day after the onset of acute reigns, complete starvation is recommended to a person. In exceptional cases, it is permissible to consume black tea without added sugar, as well as drink at least 1. 5 liters of water per day.
On the second day, it is permissible to consume 250 ml of milk and 2 soft-boiled eggs in the morning. For the second breakfast, it is allowed to use 1-2 baked apples. Lunch on the second day after the onset of symptoms of the disease includes any jelly, steamed chicken soufflé, as well as grated oatmeal soup. The afternoon snack includes rosehip uzvar and milk cream. For dinner, it is recommended to consume 200-250 ml of milk and milk porridge from grated rice cereal. In the evening before going to bed, you can drink 150-200 ml of milk.
From 3 to 6 days, the diet of a person with acute gastritis looks like this:
- Breakfast. Steamed egg soufflé, bread crumbs and unsweetened milk tea.
- Repeated breakfast. Any jelly, milk-rice porridge.
- Dinner. Sugar-free fruit compote, steamed beef soufflé, grated oatmeal soup.
- Afternoon snack. Whole milk tea, whipped cottage cheese without sugar.
- Dinner. Any jelly, milk-rice porridge. Before going to bed, it is permissible to consume 1 glass of milk.
From 6 to 10 days of the diet, patients with acute gastritis are prescribed the following diet:
- Breakfast. In the morning, it is allowed to consume black tea without added sugar, Adyghe cheese or cottage cheese, a soft-boiled egg, as well as oatmeal with the addition of milk.
- Repeated breakfast. At this time of day, it is recommended to drink 200-250 ml of rosehip broth.
- Dinner. For lunch, they serve any jelly, grated potatoes with meatballs, non-concentrated chicken broth.
- Afternoon snack. In the afternoon snack, the patient is advised to drink a milk tea drink and use wheat crackers.
- Dinner. Tea, rice casserole, and fish aspic. Before going to bed, it is recommended to use a glass of kefir with a low percentage of fat.
If a patient is diagnosed with an acute phase of hypoacid gastritis, then his diet is supplemented with such first courses as: pickle, borsch, hodgepodge, cooked in fat-free mushroom, fish or chicken broth. The listed dishes have a stimulating effect on the acid-forming function.
Diet for the chronic form of the disease
By analogy with the acute phase course, a sluggish inflammatory process also needs to comply with certain dietary recommendations. The composition of the diet for the chronicity of pathological changes directly depends on the type of pathology (atrophic or superficial chronic), its form, examination results, as well as the general condition of the patient.
With a preserved or increased acid-forming function, the patient's diet begins with the use of table No. 1. If a person is diagnosed with inhibition of the synthesis of hydrochloric acid, then the basic diet is table No. 2. When a person begins to recover, he is transferred to table No. 15. Nutrition of people with sluggishgastritis has a number of basic rules, among which there are four:
- Creation of the necessary conditions to reduce the intensity of the inflammatory response.
- Formulating an optimal diet that includes vital nutrients, vitamins, proteins, fats and carbohydrates.
- Complete elimination of factors of negative impact on the structures of the gastrointestinal tract.
- Normalization of the muscle tone of the gastrointestinal tract and harmonization of the acid-forming function of the stomach.
Based on the intensity of inflammatory changes, the general well-being of a person and the type of gastritis, daily meals can include meals in lumpy and chopped form. It is recommended to cook food steamed, boiled, and baked without the formation of a golden brown crust. The recommended temperature for serving food is not higher than 60 degrees and not lower than 15. It is necessary to eat food several times a day (at least 5 times), in limited portions. A prerequisite for such a diet is the daily consumption of 200-250 ml of cow's milk or cream with a minimum percentage of fat before going to bed. Patients with a diagnosed indolent lesion of the gastric mucosa are recommended to include the following ingredients in the diet:
- rice, buckwheat, oat and semolina;
- steamed vegetable ingredients, chopped with a blender or wiped through a sieve (potatoes, cauliflower, broccoli, beets, carrots, young green peas, zucchini and ripe tomatoes);
- beef, turkey and chicken meat, rabbit meat;
- fat-free curd mass;
- steamed egg omelet;
- aspic and steamed fish;
- non-smoked sausages, liver pate, fat-free ham, salmon caviar;
- sweet varieties of berries and fruits, pre-baked in the oven.
It is recommended to completely exclude the use of such components:
- canned products of animal origin, smoked meats;
- goose, pork, duck and lamb meat;
- some vegetables and root vegetables (rutabagas, turnips, radishes, peas, beans, cabbage and Brussels sprouts);
- such first courses as okroshka, hodgepodge, borscht;
- any products containing an increased amount of connective tissue fibers (cartilage, bird skin);
- mushrooms, dried, smoked and salted fish;
- canned and lightly salted vegetables;
- spinach leaves, fresh herbs, garlic, onions;
- carbon dioxide drinks, alcoholic drinks.
Menu for chronic gastritis
An approximate menu of a person suffering from a sluggish form of this disease is as follows:
- Breakfast. Buckwheat prepared with the addition of whole milk, cottage cheese seasoned with low-fat cream.
- Repeated breakfast. 250 ml of milk.
- Dinner. Diet steamed meat zrazy, lean semolina soup, steamed egg omelet and jelly.
- Dinner. Steamed fish semi-finished products, finely chopped pasta and tea with whole milk.
- For the night. 200 ml of milk or fat-free kefir.
Can gastritis be cured with a diet?
Unlike the acute form of the pathological process, chronic gastritis is more difficult to treat conservatively. In the case of diagnosing one of the forms and types of the disease, a person is prescribed complex treatment, including drug therapy, lifestyle correction, dietary recommendations and a drinking regimen. Thanks to the use of certain groups of medicinal drugs, it is possible to normalize the acid-forming function of the stomach, eliminate characteristic disorders of the digestive activity and prevent the development of the erosive and ulcerative process. Dietary recommendations allow you to enhance the effect of drug treatment, as well as prevent additional trauma to the mucous membrane of the gastric wall.
In addition to a specialized diet, patients with a similar diagnosis are advised to take mineral waters. With hyperacid gastritis, healing waters are used warm. It is recommended to take medicinal waters 60 minutes before meals. With preserved or insufficient acidity, water at room temperature is used, which is drunk in small sips 20 minutes before a meal. For the treatment of pathology with preserved or insufficient acidity, waters of sodium chloride mineral composition are used.
It is important to remember that any attempts at self-medication can lead to the development of serious consequences, therefore, the attending gastroenterologist should be involved in the preparation of dietary recommendations and the selection of mineral waters for the treatment of gastritis.
Nutritional features for gastritis with low acidity
In case of gastritis with insufficient secretion of gastric juice, it is worth adhering to important rules:
- Be very careful with the diseased organ.
- Stimulate an increase in gastric secretion.
A huge role in the second rule is played by foods that activate and increase the secretion of gastric juice, these include:
- strong fish and meat broths;
- vegetable broths;
- mushroom soups and decoctions;
- natural vegetable and fruit juices;
- steamed meat and fish cutlets;
- dairy products (mainly lactic acid);
- puree from vegetables and fruits;
- other foods with a strong smell and strong taste (which whet the appetite).
But the most important rule when drawing up a menu with such products is to prepare them in such a way that the food does not irritate the gastric mucosa and does not linger in it for a long time. That is: boiling, chopping, fractional nutrition. It is important to wash thoroughly, pour boiling water over all products before cooking. Hydrochloric acid fights bacteria, if it is not enough, then additional infection can be introduced with food. You should chew food thoroughly - this gives additional secretion of gastric juice.
Nutritional features for gastritis with high acidity
The main main rules for this disease:
- Spare the gastric mucosa as much as possible;
- Eat foods that reduce the release of hydrochloric acid.
Recommended foods for reducing gastric excretion are:
- milk porridge with cereals;
- non-acidic fat-free: sour cream, cottage cheese;
- eggs (soft-boiled only or in the form of a steam omelet);
- boiled meat and fish - low-fat varieties;
- vegetables: potatoes, beets, carrots - in the form of mashed potatoes and puddings;
- buckwheat, oatmeal, pearl barley, rice, semolina porridge;
- boiled pasta and noodles;
- fruits of only sweet varieties in the form of jelly and compotes;
- butter and refined butter in small doses.
Systematic fractional nutrition with proper preparation of food (chopping, steaming, thorough cleaning of dirt and microbes, etc. ) will give a positive result and speed up the healing process.
Table of allowed and prohibited foods for gastritis of the stomach
|Products and dishes||Can||It is impossible|
|Bread, bakery products||
in soups (for dressing), you can add low-fat fresh sour cream, eggs, butter
|Meat and fish dishes||
the food is steamed or in the oven - no crusting (all tendons are removed)
vegetable dishes are boiled or steamed
|Fruits, berries, nuts||Ripe, sweet fruits and berries:
berries and fruits are used after heat treatment in a chopped and mashed form (jelly, compotes, jellies, mousses, baked in the oven. )
|Cereals and pasta||
in the form of cereals in milk or water
|Milk and dairy products||
mainly as an ingredient or addition to a dish
no more than 2 eggs per day
|Spices, sauces, condiments||
all this in small quantities - rarely
When drawing up the menu, it is necessary to take into account the type of gastritis (with high or low acidity), the form of the course of the disease (acute or chronic), individual intolerance to foods. And also, you should definitely consult a gastroenterologist, who will accurately determine the list of products for you, and select the right menu.